The earliest plans for libraries in Greenland were drafted in the eighteenth century. These libraries were reserved for the Danish colonists. During the first part of the nineteenth century, lending collections for the Greenlandic population were established by missionaries. Proper legislation for public libraries did not occur until 1956.
As a result of the 1956 legislation, Hans Westermann was employed as the first trained librarian in Greenland. Hans Westermann was responsible for establishing the Greenlandic public library system in the 1950's and in charge of restructuring the library system in connection with the Greenland Home Rule in 1979.
It was Hans Westermann, who laid the foundations for the Groenlandica Collection in the 1950's. Initially, the collection was primarily intended as a museum collection with old Greenlandic publications.
With the introduction of the Home Rule in 1979, Greenland assumed responsibility for the library system. Groenlandica remained a subdivision of Nunatta Atuagaateqarfia (Central Library of Greenland), and until 2007 it was housed in the same building as Nunatta Atuagaateqarfia.
On March 7th 2008 Groenlandica reopened in new surroundings at the Ilimmarfik campus. Here, Groenlandica has merged physically with the University Library, although the two libraries still belong to separate organizations. With the merger of the two libraries, a big step has been taken towards Greenland's own National and University Library.